Schemes Launched by the Government
ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme) 1975
The program of the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS)
was launched in 1975 seeking to provide an integrated package of
services in a convergent manner for the holistic development of the
child. The package involves the following services:
· Supplementary Nutrition;
· Health Check-up;
· Referral Services;
· Non-formal Pre-school Education; and
· Nutrition & Health Education.
Indira Awas Yojana (IAY)
1985, 1996 Launched during 1985 but became independent scheme only in 1996.
The target group for houses under Indira Awaas Yojana is people
below poverty line living in rural areas belonging to Scheduled
Castes/ Scheduled Tribes, freed bonded labourers and non- SC/ST
Categories. A maximum of 40% of the total IAY allocation during a
financial year can be utilized for construction of dwelling units for
non-SC/ST BPL categories. The scheme is funded on a cost sharing
basis of 75:25 between the centre & the states.
Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
1993 Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana for providing self-Employment to
Educated Unemployed Youth was announced by the Prime Minister
in 1993 to provide self-employed opportunities to one million
educated unemployed youth in the country. Under this scheme,
matriculates & above in the age group 18-35 yrs are provided bank
loans upto Rs. 1.25 lakhs if they have a viable & feasible project
their family income does not exceed Rs. 40,000 per annum.
Mid Day Meal Scheme 1995
Launched by Ministry of Human Resource Development under
which nutritional content of 450 calories & 12 grams protein is
served to children studying at primary level in government. The
Scheme covers students of Class I-V in the Government Primary
Schools / Primary Schools aided by Govt. and the Primary Schools
run by local bodies.
The programme was extended with effect from 1st October 2007 to
include children in the upper primary stage of Education (Class VI-VIII). For upper primary stage the nutritional value is fixed at 700
calories & 20 grams of protein.
Targetted PDS 1997
To ensure minimum availability of minimum quantity of food grains
to the families living below poverty line. The allocation was
increased to 35 Kg per family from 2002.
Swarnajayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)
1997 It subsumed the following schemes under it
1. Nehru Rojgar Yojana
2. UBSP – Urban Basic Services for the Poor
3. SEPUP – Self Employment Programme for Urban Poor
4. PMIUPEP – PM’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program
Kisan Credit Card Scheme
1998 To provide adequate & timely support from the banking system to
the farmers for their cultivation needs including purchase of all
inputs in a flexible & cost effective manner.
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
1999 It has subsumed the following six programs
1. IRDP – Integrated Rural Development Program
2. TRYSEM – Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment
3. Ganga Kalyan Yojana
4. DWCRA – Development of Women & Children in Rural Areas
5. Million Wells Scheme
6. SITRA – Supply of Improved tool-kits to rural artisans.
The scheme is being implemented on a cost sharing basis of 75:25
between centre & state. It aims at promoting micro enterprises & to
bring swarozgaris above the poverty line by organizing them into
Self Help Groups (SHGs).
Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)
2001 The following schemes have been integrated into it:
· Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY)
· Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
The objective of this is to provide wage employment & food security.
Cost sharing basis is 75:25. Subsumed under NREGS (National
Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme).
Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
2000 Its objective is to provide road connectivity through good all weather
roads to unconnected habitations with a population of 500 persons or
more in the rural areas. The source of funding for PMGSY is the
diesel cess, 50 % of which is earmarked for PMGSY.
2000 It is a 100 % Centrally sponsored scheme. It aims at providing food
security to meet the requirement of those senior citizens who though
eligible for pension under the National Old Age Pension Scheme are
not getting the same. Under this 10 Kg of foodgrains per person per
month would be supplied free of cost.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
2000-01 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an effort to universalise elementary
education by community-ownership of the school system. It is being
implemented in partnership with the states to address the needs of
children in age group of 6-14 years. Its objectives are:
1. All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate
School, ‘ Back-to-School’ camp by 2003;
2. All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007
3. All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010
4. Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life
5. Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by
2007 and at elementary education level by 2010
6. Universal retention by 2010
2001 This scheme would target the poorest of the poorest families out of
the BPL families covered under the Targeted PDS & provide them
with 35 kg of foodgrains per eligible family at a highly subsidized
rate of Rs. 2 per Kg for wheat & Rs. 3 per Kg for rice.
Valmiki Ambedkar Awas Yojana (VAMBAY)
2001 Scheme seeks to ameliorate the conditions of urban slum dwellers
living below poverty line.
Grain Bank Scheme
2002 Launched with the objective of extending food security to remote
regions of the country which cannot be covered under the formal
PDS i.e. basically tribal areas. It is handled by Ministry of Tribal
Affairs. Allocation of food grains was made for the first time during
2002-03 under the scheme.
The NPEGEL scheme was launched in July, 2003 with a focused
intervention aimed at enhancing girls’ education. NPEGEL provides
for development of a “model school” in every cluster with more
intense community mobilization and supervision of girls’ enrolment
National Food for Work Program
2004 100 % centrally sponsored scheme. Currently being implemented in
the 150 most backward districts of the country. The scheme would
provide 100 days of employment at min
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV)
2004 The Government of India has approved a new scheme called
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) for setting up upto 750
residential schools with boarding facilities at elementary level for
girls belonging predominantly to the SC, ST, OBC and minorities in
difficult areas. The scheme will be coordinated with the existing
schemes of Department of Elementary Education & Literacy viz.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), National Programme for Education of
Girls at Elementary Level (NPEGEL) and Mahila Samakhya (MS).
The cost sharing arrangement is 75:25 between centre & state.
The scheme ran as a separate scheme for two years but was merged
with Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan w.e.f April 1, 2007.
Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna (RGGVY)
2005 Objective of providing electricity to all rural households over a
period of 4 years.
NHRM 2005 National Rural Health Mission was launched in 2005 to provide
accessible, affordable, & quality health services to the poorest
households in the remotest rural regions.
JN National Urban Renewal Mission
2005-06 Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission which is for a
seven year period from 2005-06 has two main components:
· Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) Programme
· Integrated Housing & Slum Development Programme (IHSDP)
Bharat Nirman 2005-06 A time-bound (4 year) plan for rural infrastructure by the
Government of India in partnership with State Governments and
Panchayat Raj Institutions from 2005-2009. Its main features are:
1. Bring additional one crore hectare of land under assured irrigation
2. Connect all villages that have a population of 1000 (or 500 in hilly/tribal area) with an all-weather road.
3. Construct 60 lakh additional houses for the poor
4. Provide drinking water to atl habitations
5. Reach electricity to all villages and offer electricity connection to
2.3 crore households
6. Give telephone connectivity to all villages
National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)
2006 NREGS was launched in 2006 in 200 most backward districts in the
first phase. The scheme was expanded to cover all districts from
April 1, 2008.
1. The NREGA provides a legal guarantee for 100 days of
employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural
household willing to do unskilled manual work at the statutory
2. The act guarantees that if work is not provided within a 15 day
time frame (including the eligibility verification and issuing of
the job cards) then the applicant is eligible for unemployment
3. Work to be done is decided by the Gram Panchayat. Emphasis is
given to unskilled manual labor focusing on building roads and
other public village infrastructural facilities, water conservation,
afforestation, land development & drought proofing.
4. All adults in a house hold are eligible to work.
5. If the work site is not within 5 kilometers from the applicant’s
residence then the applicant is eligible for an additional 10% of
Aam Admi Bima Yojana
2007 Under this scheme launched in October 2007, insurance to the head
of the family of rural landless households of the country will be
provided against natural death as well as accidental death &
· Cover of Rs. 75,000 on death due to accident & permanent
disability due to accident.
· Rs. 37,500 in case of partial permanent disability due to accident
& Rs. 30,000 in case of death of a member prior to terminal date.
The premium to be charged under the scheme is Rs. 200 per annum
per member, 50 % of which is to be contributed by central
government & remaining 50 % by Central government.
National Old Age Pension Scheme
2007 Will benefit the one who is 65 years or above & belonging to a
household living below the poverty line. The scheme would provide
Rs. 200 per month of financial assistance from the central
government. So Far 11 states have responded positively towards
matching the Central Aid given under this head. This scheme has
been launched as a public response to the deprivation, & insecurities
faced by the aged & is being implemented by the Ministry of Rural
Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana
2007 The Rasthriya Swasthya Bima Yojana was formally launched on
October 1, 2007. This scheme will provide health cover of Rs.
30,000 for every worker in the unorganized sector falling under BPL
category & his/her family. The scheme also has a provision of smart
card to be issued to the beneficiaries to enable cashless transacation
for health care. Central Government would bear 75 % of the cost
while the State government will contribute remaining 25 % as well as
any additional premium. The cost of the smart card will also be borne
by the central government.
Ujjawala Scheme 2007
Ujjawala Scheme for prevention of trafficking & Rescue,
Rehabilitation & Reintigration of victims of trafficking
commercial sexual exploitation was launched in December, 2007. It
has five components namely prevention, rescue, rehabilitation,
reintigration & repatriation.
Objective of the Scheme:
•To prevent trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation through social mobilization and involvement of local
communities, awareness generation programmes, generate public
discourse through workshops/seminars and such events and any other
•To facilitate rescue of victims from the place of their exploitation
and place them in safe custody.
•To provide rehabilitation services both immediate and long-term to
the victims by providing basic amenities/needs such as shelter, food,
clothing, medical treatment including counselling, legal aid and guidance and vocational training.
•To facilitate reintegration of the victims into the family and society at large
•To facilitate repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin
Maitri Maitri is India’s second permanent research station in Antarctica. It was built and
finished in 1989, after the first station Dakshina Gangotri was buried in ice and
abandoned in 1990-91. Maitri is situated on the rocky mountainous region called
Larsemann Hills Establishment of the third Indian Antarctic Research Base in the Larsemann Hills
Series of international meetings of scientists to discuss problems of nuclear weapons
and world security. The first of the conferences met in July 1957 in the village of
Pugwash, Nova Scotia. In 1995 the Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded jointly to the
Pugwash organization and to Joseph Rotblat—Pugwash founding member, secretary-general (1957–73), and president (1988–97).
Bara Hoti Small area in northern U.P. which is disputed between India & China. Incidents of
Chinese frontier guards violating the line of actual control almost doubled by 2004 at
Trig Heights, Pan Gong Tso lake, Bara Hoti and at Asaphila areas in all the three
sectors of the border.
Four Great Observatories
· The Hubble Space Telescope (HST)primarily observes visible light and near-ultraviolet. A 1997 servicing mission added capability in the near-infrared range. It
was launched in 1990 aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery
· The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO)primarily observed gamma
rays, though it extended into hard x-rays as well. It was launched in 1991 aboard
the Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-37. It was deorbited in 2000 after failure of a
· The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO),named after Indian physicist
Subrahmanyam Chandrashekar was initially named the Advanced X-ray
Astronomical Facility (AXAF). It primarily observes soft x-rays. It was launched in
1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during STS-93.
· The Spitzer Space Telescope (SST)was called the Space Infrared Telescope
Facility (SIRTF) before launch. It observes the infrared spectrum, and was
launched in 2003 aboard a Delta II rocket.
CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women.
Adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, CEDAW is often described as an
international bill of rights for women. Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for
national action to end such discrimination.
PM’s Five Point Agenda for Developing India as Knowledge Society
Launched by then PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee in the yar 2000. The five point agenda
points to the following:
1. Education for developing a learning society
2. Global networking
3. Vibrant Government-Industry-Academia interaction in policy making and implementation
4. Leveraging of existing competencies in IT, Telecom, Bio-technology, Drug Design, Financial Services, and Enterprise wide Management
5. Economic and Business strategic alliances built on capabilities and opportunities