The Respiratory System
Respiration in Single Cell Animals
Single-celled organisms exchange gases directly across their cell membrane. However, the slow diffusion rate of oxygen relative to carbon dioxide limits the size of single-celled organisms. Simple animals that lack specialized exchange surfaces have flattened, tubular, or thin shaped body plans, which are the most efficient for gas exchange. However, these simple animals are rather small in size.
Respiration in Multicellular Animals
Large animals cannot maintain gas exchange by diffusion across their outer surface. They developed a variety of respiratory surfaces that all increase the surface area for exchange, thus allowing for larger bodies. A respiratory surface is covered with thin, moist epithelial cells that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange. Those gases can only cross cell membranes when they are dissolved in water or an aqueous solution, thus respiratory surfaces must be moist.
Respiratory System Principles
· Movement of an oxygen-containing medium so it contacts a moist membrane overlying blood vessels.
· Diffusion of oxygen from the medium into the blood.
· Transport of oxygen to the tissues and cells of the body.
· Diffusion of oxygen from the blood into cells.
· Carbon dioxide follows a reverse path.
The Human Respiratory System
· Air enters the nostrils
· passes through the nasopharynx,
· the oral pharynx
· through the glottis
· into the trachea
· into the right and left bronchi, which branches and rebranches into
· bronchioles, each of which terminates in a cluster of alveloi
· Only in the alveoli does actual gas exchange takes place. There are some 300 million alveoli in two adult lungs. These provide a surface area of some 160 m2 (almost equal to the singles area of a tennis court and 80 times the area of our skin!).
· In mammals, the diaphragm divides the body cavity into the-
· abdominal cavity, which contains the viscera (e.g., stomach and intestines) and the
· thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs.
Central Control of Breathing
The rate of cellular respiration (oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) varies with level of activity. Vigorous exercise can increase by 20-25 times the demand of the tissues for oxygen. This is met by increasing the rate and depth of breathing.
Local Control of Breathing
The smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchioles is very sensitive to the concentration of carbon dioxide. A rising level of CO2 causes the bronchioles to dilate. This lowers the resistance in the airways and thus increases the flow of air in and out.
The Circulatory System
Circulatory Systems in Single-celled Organisms
Single-celled organisms use their cell surface as a point of exchange with the outside environment. Sponges are the simplest animals, yet even they have a transport system. Seawater is the medium of transport and is propelled in and out of the sponge by ciliary action. Simple animals, such as the hydra and planaria lack specialized organs such as hearts and blood vessels, instead using their skin as an exchange point for materials. This, however, limits the size an animal can attain. To become larger, they need specialized organs and organ systems.
Circulatory Systems in Multicellular Organisms
Multicellular animals do not have most of their cells in contact with the external environment and so have developed circulatory systems to transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes.
i. Blood: a connective tissue of liquid plasma and cells
ii. Heart: a muscular pump to move the blood
iii. Blood vessels: arteries, capillaries and veins that deliver blood to all tissues
Types of circulatory systems
The open circulatory system
The open circulatory system, examples molluscs and arthropods. Open circulatory systems (evolved in insects, mollusks and other invertebrates) pump blood into a hemocoel with the blood diffusing back to the circulatory system between cells. Blood is pumped by a heart into the body cavities, where tissues are surrounded by the blood. The resulting blood flow is sluggish.
Closed circulatory system
Vertebrates, and a few invertebrates, have a closed circulatory system. Closed circulatory systems (evolved in echinoderms and vertebrates) have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness. In this type of system, blood is pumped by a heart through vessels, and does not normally fill body cavities. Blood flow is not sluggish. Hemoglobin causes vertebrate blood to turn red in the presence of oxygen; but more importantly hemoglobin molecules in blood cells transport oxygen. The human closed circulatory system is sometimes called the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic circulation, which is also secondary circulatory system collects fluid and cells and returns them to the cardiovascular system.
Vertebrate Cardiovascular System
· The vertebrate cardiovascular system includes a heart, which is a muscular pump that contracts to propel blood out to the body through arteries, and a series of blood vessels.
· Contraction of the ventricle forces blood from the heart through an artery.
· The heart muscle is composed of cardiac muscle cells.
· Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from heart. Arterial walls are able to expand and contract.
· Arteries have three layers of thick walls. Smooth muscle fibers contract, another layer of connective tissue is quite elastic, allowing the arteries to carry blood under high pressure
· The pulmonary artery is the only artery that carries oxygen-poor blood. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the lungs, gas exchange occurs, carbon dioxide diffuses out, oxygen diffuses in
· Higher pressures (human 120/80 as compared to a 12/1 in lobsters) mean the volume of blood circulates faster (20 seconds in humans, 8 minutes in lobsters).
Ventricular contraction propels blood into arteries under great pressure. Blood pressure is measured in mm of mercury; healthy young adults should have pressure of ventricular systole of 120mm, and 80 mm at ventricular diastole.
The heart is a muscular structure that contracts in a rhythmic pattern to pump blood. Hearts have a variety of forms:
· Chambered hearts in mollusks and vertebrates
· Tubular hearts of arthropods, and aortic arches of annelids.
· Accessory hearts are used by insects to boost or supplement the main heart’s actions.
· Fish, reptiles, and amphibians have lymph hearts that help pump lymph back into veins.
· The basic vertebrate heart, such as in has two chambers. An auricle is the chamber of the heart where blood is received from the body. A ventricle pumps the blood it gets through a valve from the auricle out to the gills through an artery.
The Human Heart
· The human heart is a two-sided, four-chambered structure with muscular walls. An atrioventricular (AV) valve separates each auricle from ventricle. A semilunar (also known as arterial) valve separates each ventricle from its connecting artery.
· The heart beats or contracts approximately 70 times per minute. The human heart will undergo over 3 billion contraction cycles during a normal lifetime.
The cardiac cycle
The cardiac cycle consists of two parts: systole (contraction of the heart muscle) and diastole (relaxation of the heart muscle). Atria contract while ventricles relax. The pulse is a wave of contraction transmitted along the arteries. Valves in the heart open and close during the cardiac cycle. Heart muscle contraction is due to the presence of nodal tissue in two regions of the heart.
Blood is a bright red viscous fluid which flows through all the vessels except the lymph vessels. It constitutes 8% of the total body weight. Blood is composed of two portions: formed elements(cell and cell like structures) ad plasma (liquid containing dissolved substances).
· Plasma is the liquid component of the blood. Mammalian blood consists of a liquid (plasma) and a number of cellular and cell fragment components.
· Plasma is about 60 % of a volume of blood; cells and fragments are 40%. Plasma has 90% water and 10% dissolved materials including proteins, glucose, ions, hormones, and gases.
· It acts as a buffer, maintaining pH near 7.4. Plasma contains nutrients, wastes, salts, proteins, etc. Proteins in the blood aid in transport of large molecules such as cholesterol.
Red blood cells
· Red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes, are flattened, doubly concave cells about 7 µm in diameter that carry oxygen associated in the cell’s hemoglobin.
· Mature erythrocytes lack a nucleus. They are small, 4 to 6 million cells per cubic millimeter of blood, and have 200 million hemoglobin molecules per cell.
· Humans have a total of 25 trillion red blood cells (about 1/3 of all the cells in the body).
· Red blood cells are continuously manufactured in red marrow of long bones, ribs, skull, and vertebrae.
White Blood Cells
· White blood cells, also known as leukocytes, are larger than erythrocytes, have a nucleus, and lack hemoglobin. They function in the cellular immune response. White blood cells (leukocytes) are less than 1% of the blood’s volume. They are made from stem cells in bone marrow.
· There are five types of leukocytes, which are important components of the immune system.
(a) Neutrophils enter the tissue fluid by squeezing through capillary walls and phagocytozing foreign substances
(b) Macrophages release white blood cell growth factors, causing a population increase for white blood cells.
(c) Lymphocytes fight infection.
(d) T-cells attack cells containing viruses.
(e) B-cells produce antibodies. Antigen-antibody complexes are phagocytized by a macrophage.
· White blood cells can squeeze through pores in the capillaries and fight infectious diseases in intestinal areas
· Platelets result from cell fragmentation and are involved with clotting.
· Platelets are cell fragments that bud off megakaryocytes in bone marrow. They carry chemicals essential to blood clotting.
· Platelets survive for 10 days before being removed by the liver and spleen.
· There are 150,000 to 300,000 platelets in each milliliter of blood.