WAR AND BATTLES(quick revision)


Books/Articles & Authors (Modern)


Ghulamgiri (challenged superiority of Brahmins)

Jyotiba Phule

Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists in Persian)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishvara & Life of Shivaji

Jyotiba Phule

New Lamp for the Old (Series of Articles criticizing Congress)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Doctrine of Passive Resistance (Articles in Bande Mataram)

Aurobindo Ghosh

Indian War of Independence (seized by British)

V.D. Savarkar

Loyal Muhammadans of India

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Tahaib-al-Akhlaq Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Asbab-e-Bagawar-e-Hind  (Held Bahadur Shah II as fool for revolting)

 

Sayyed Ahmad Khan

Neel Darpan

Dinbandhu Mitra

How did America get Freedom

Ram Prasad Bismil

The activities of Bolsheviks, The wave of the Mind,

Colour of Swadeshi,

Revolutionary Life

Ram Prasad Bismil

Systematic History of Ancient India

V.A. Smith

Hindu Polity

K.P. Jayaswal

Political History of Ancient India

H.C. Raychaudhary

A History of Ancient India; A history of South India

K.A. Nilkant Shastri

Hindu Civilization; Chandragupta Maurya; Asoka;

R.K. Mookerji

Fundamental Unity of India

R.K. Mookerji

History of Dharmashastra P.V. Kane

R.K. Mookerji

The Wonder That was India

A.L. Basham

 

Socio-Religious Reformers & their Organizations

Atmiya Sabha (1815)

Raja Rammohun Roy

Brahmo Samaj (1828)

Raja Rammohun Roy.

Tattvabodhini Sabha (1839).later merge Brahmo Samaj in 1842

Mahrishi Devendranath Tagore

Indian national Social Conference

M.G. Ranade

Harijan Sevak Sangh

Mahatma Gandhi

Satya Shodhak Samaj (1873)

oppression)

Jyotirao Phule (fight caste

 

T. Teagaraja & T.M. Nair (Self respect)

 

Prarthana Samaj (1867)

Atma Ram Pandurang

Arya Samaj (1875)

Swami Dayanand

Servants of India Society (1905)Knighthood) (Rejected

Gopal Krishna Gokhale

 

Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha

Chapekar BrothersDamodar&Balakrishna

Abhinav Bharat

V.D. Savarkar

New India Association

V.D. Savarkar

Anushilan Samiti

 

 

Aurobindo                                        Ghose, Barindra Kumar Ghose B.P.Mitra, Abinash Bhattacharya & Bhupendra Dutta

Patriotic Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Muhammad Anglo-Oriental Defence Association

Sayyid Ahmad Khan

Bahiskrit Hitkarni Sabha (1924)

B.R. Ambedkar

Akhil Bharatiya Dalit Varg Sabha

B.R. Ambedkar

 

Rajaram Mohun

Roy

Laid stress on the study of English & established the Hindu College in Calcutta alongwith David Hare.

Maharishi Devendranath Tagore

The grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. He inspired a number of thinkers like Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar & Akshay Kumar Datta who became Brahmo Samaj members. He din’t perform his fathers antyeshti samskara as it involved idol worship.

Keshav Chandra Sen

He was greatly inspired with the lives of John the Baptist, Jesus Christ & hence he came in confrontation with Devendranath Tagore. Consequently the Brahmo Samaj  was split into the Brahmo Samaj of India under him & Adi Brahmo Samaj under Devendranath. He opposed child marriage but married her own minor daughter to Maharaja of Cooch-Behar. Hence there was a further split into Neo Brahmo Samaj under him & Sadharan Brahmo Samaj

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

Became principal of Sanskrit college in Calcutta. Opened the Sanskrit college for non Brahmin students. He founded ‘Bethune School at Calcutta’ to encourage female education.

Bankim Chandra

First graduate of Calcutta University which was estd in 1857 based on the lines of Macaulay Minute. He became a deputy collector. Wrote the famous Bande Matram (Anand Math) & published Banga Darshan magazine.

Ramakrishna Paramhamsa

Became a priest in the temple of Goddess Kali at Dakshineshwar. (1836-86)

Swami Vivekanand (1863-1902)

In 1893 he attened the Parliament of Religions at Chicago. In 1897 he established the Ramakrishna Mission. His disciple, Sister Nivedita even helped many revolutionaries from Bengal directly.

Swami Dayananda

1824-83

Known in early life as Mul Shankar & born in Gujarat. Received his education at the feet of Swami Virajananda at Mathura. Founded Arya Samaj in 1875 based on a set of 28 principles (later 10). He estd the HQ of Arya Samaj at Lahore. Passed away on Diwali at Jodhpur following the mixing of glass powder in his drink. Through his Satyartha Prakasha he emphasized Vedas. He laid emphasis on the worship of a formless god & abandonment of idolatory. He emphasized on Ashrama system of education. He stressed on swadeshi, swadharma, swabhasha & swarajya. He considered Vedas as infallible.

Jyotibha Phule

In 1873 he founded Satya Shodhak Samaj. Gave testimony before Hunter Commission against Christian missionaries. Later given the title ‘Mahatma’.

Sayyid Ahmad

Khan

In 1875 founded the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh which later became Aligarh University. Opposed polygamy, purdah, abolition of the practice of easy divorce, reform in madrasa.

Movements/Organizations.

 

Deoband

Movement

Represented by Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi & Rashid Ahmad Gangohi.Nanautavi founded the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madrasa at Deoband. This movement wasstrictly based on Islamic tradition unlike liberal Aligarh movement. The also promulgated a fatwa against Sayyid Ahmad’s associations. In 1919, Mufti Liyaqat Ullah Sahib founded the, ‘Jamaitul Ulema-i-Hind’ to further work in this direction. His role was prominent in the Khilafat movement.

Muslim League

Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk presided over a gathering at the invitation of Nawab Salim Ullah of Dacca. Muslim league was the result. The constitution of the league was prepared in 1907 at Karachi. The first session of the league was held in 1908 at Amritsar. The same year Aga Khan became the president. The league supported partition of Bengal & was a loyalist organization. After 1913 Aga Khan left the league which led to the emergence of new leaders like Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali & M.A. Ansari.

Home Rule League

Estd by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. She was the president &other members included Arundale, P.C. Ramaswamy Iyer, V.P. Wadia.Balgangadhar Tilak had estd another Home Rule League in April 1916 at Pune.

Champaran

Satyagraha 1917

European planters forced the farmers to cultivate Indigo on atleast 3/20 (Tinkathiya) parts of their land. Rajendra Prasad, Mazhur-ul-Haq, J.B. Kriplani, Mahadev Desai accompanied him. An enquiry was set up to alleviate miseries of which even Gandhi was a member.

Kheda Satyagraha

Kheda peasants refused to pay revenue due to failure of crops. After Satyagraha the government issued instructions to collect revenue only from those who could afford to pay. Indulal Yagnik & Vallabh Bhai Patel supported Gandhi.

Ahmedabad Mill

Problem 1918

Mahatma Gandhi considered 35 % increase in salary as just. He undertook a fast unto death & the strike came to an end. Ambalal Sarabhai’s sister Anasuya Behn was main lieutenant of Gandhi here.

Rowlatt Act

In March 1919, the Britishers passed the Rowlatt Act according to which any Indian could be arrested on the basis of suspicion. A nationwide satyagraha was organized which involved arrest of Mahatma Gandhi, Dr Satyapal, Dr. Saiffuddin Kitchlew & Arya Samaj leader Swami Shradhananda (shoot if you can rally).

Jallianwala Bagh

Massacre

Demanded to know the whereabouts of Satyapal and Kitchlew throught the reciting of the poem ‘Fariyad’ on the day of Baisakhi (13th April, 1919). Martial law was proclaimed later at Lahore, Gujarat & Layal with curfew at Amritsar. An enquiry was setup under Hunter. Rabindranath Tagore renounced his title.

Khilafat Movement

Sultan of Turkey was the Caliph. The allied powers were arrayed against Turkey. Mulana Abul Kalam Azad, M.A. Ansari, Saiffudin Kitchlew, Maulvi Abdulbari, Hakim Ajmal Khan & the Ali brothers were prominent leaders. British signed the Treaty of Tibers, partitioned Turkey & its Sultan was made a prisoner & sent to Constantinople.

Non Cooperation

1920-22

Approval at Congress session in 1920. Leaders like Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Annie Besant & Bipin Chandra Pal not in agreement & left the congress. Students took their names off school. Kashi Vidyapeeth, Bihar Vidyapeeth, Jamia Milia Islamia were set up. No Congress leader contested for elections. Mass demonstrations before Duke of Connaught & Prince of wales. Tilak Swarajya Fund was established. Moplah rebellion was the ugly face. Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur, UP incidence led to its recall. Congress leaders like Motilal Nehru, Chittaranjan Das formed as separate group within the congress known as Swarajya Party with a purpose not to let the movement lapse.

AITUC

1920

Formed in 1920 with Lotvala’s help. M.N Roy, Muzzafarabad Ahmad, S. A Dange & Shaukat Osmani led the trade unionist movements. The Britishers leveled the kanpur/Meerut conspiracy against them.

Swaraj Party

Suspension of Non Cooperation movement disoriented the leadership. Chittaranjan Das & Motilal Nehru were called ‘Pro-Changers’ & did not support the non cooperation movement. The other group was ‘no-changers’ & included C. Rajgopalachari, M.A. Ansari. In 1923 Das & Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at Allahabad with a view to take part in the 1923 Council elections. The swaraj party got clear majority in the Central legislature & Provincial legislatures except Bengal. After the passing away of Chittaranjan Das in 1925 the party weakened & further some of the leaders became corrupt. Therefore in the election of 1926 it suffered miserable defeat in all the provinces except Madras.

Hindustan

Republic

Associaiton 1924

Established in October 1924 in Kanpur by revolutionaries like Ramprasad Bismil,  Jogesh Chatterjee, Chandrashekhar Azad and Sachindranath Sanyal. The Kakori Train Action was a notable act of terrorism by this group but trial prooved to be a major setback.However, the group was reorganized under the leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad and with members like Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev on 9 and 10 September 1928- and the group was now christened Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged in March 1931.

Communist Party of India 1925

Was declared illegal in 1934. This ban continued till 1942 when there was an agreement that the communist will support British in the war effort & sabotage the quit India movement. In a memorandum to the Cabinet Mission in 1946, they put forward a plan for the division of India into 17 sovereign states.

Bardoli Satyagraha

In Bardoli district of Surat under Vallabh Bhai Patel. The government had raised the tax rate by 30% despite famine.

All India States

People Conference

Formed in 1926 whose first session was held under the presidentship of the famous leader of Ellore, Diwan Bahadur M. Ramachandra Rai.

Simon

Commission

The purpose was the review the Act of 1919 after a gap of ten years. The 7 member commission was labeled ‘White Men Commission’. Huge demonstration under Govind Vallabh Pant at Lucknow & Lala Lajpat at Lahore. The report of Simon Commission was published in May 1930. It stated the constitutional experiment with Dyarchy was unsuccessful & in its place recommended the establishment of autonomous government. It recommended special powers to governor general & governors to look after the interest of minorities, strengthening the centre, increasing electorate base on communal basis, Indianization of defence forces, delink Burma from India & Sindh from Bombay. The Indians rejected the report as it gave no regard to Dominion Status. It became a basis for the Govt of India Act 1935.

Nehru Report,

1928

Secretary of State, Lord Birkenhead challenged the Indians to produce a constitution that would be acceptable to all. A meeting held at Bombay set up a 8 member committee headed by Motilal Nehru & others included Bose, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Sir Ali Imam, Shahib Qureshi, Sardar Mangal Singh, MS Anney & G.R Pradhan. The report was placed before Congress Session in Calcutta in 1928 where it was adopted unanimously. It recommended reservation for minorities instead of separate electorates. Jinnah & President of Central Sikh league, Sardar Kharak Singh rejected it. Later Jinnah convened an All India Conference of Muslims & drew up a list of 14 point. Jawahar & Bose were not happy with the dominion status.

Dandi March

April 1930

Reached Dandi after marching with 78 handpicked followers & formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the Salt laws. Many muslims kept themselves aloof but in the NWFP an organization of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of Gods – Red Shirts) under Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan (Frontier Gandhi) participated in full.

I Round table

Conference

Nov 1930

Held under the Chairmanship of Ramsay MacDonald. Failed to resolve any issues as it was opposed by congress.

Gandhi Irwin Pact

March 1931

As per it Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement & participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact.

II Round Table

Conference 1931

At London. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India as no agreement could be reached. In January 1932 the civil disobedience movement was resumed.

McDonald

Communal Award

1932

The British PM Ramsay MacDonald made an announcement according to which the depressed classes were considered as separate community. Mahatma Gandhi went on a fast unto death in Yeravada Jail. An agreement was reached with the consent of Mahatma Gandhi & Ambedkar which came to be known as ‘PoonaAct’. The British government also approved it. Accordingly 148 seats were reserved in different provincial legislatures in place of 71 as per communal award.

III Round TableConference 1932

The congress once more didn’t take part in it. None the less the BritishGovernment issued a white paper which became basis for Govt of India Act 1935. Individual Civil Disobedience was launched in 1933

Congress Socialist

Party 1934

founded in 1934 by Jai Praksh Narain & Acharya Narendra Deva within the Indian National Congress. Its members rejected what they saw as the Communist Party of India’s loyalty to the USSR as well as the anti-rational mysticism of Mohandas Gandhi. Although a socialist, Jawaharlal Nehru did not join the CSP. After independence, the CSP broke away from Congress, under the influence of JP Narayan and Basawon Singh (Sinha), to form the Socialist Party of India.

August Offer 1940

Envisaged that after the war a representative body of Indians would be set up to frame the new constitution.

Individual

Satyagraha 1940

Started in October 1940. In it Vinoba Bhave, Jawahar Nehru & Brahma Dutt were the first 3 satyagrahis

Cripps Mission

1942

Viceroy Lord Linlithgow expanded is Executive council by taking five moreIndians into it. The Indians were dissatisfied as it did not like the rights of the princely states to join or stay out of the Indian constitution. The demand for Pak also not considered leading to Muslim league rejecting the plan.

Quit India

Movement

1942-44

The fear of an impending Japanese invasion Gandhi launched this campaign. In the midst the government arrested all Indian leaders – Gandhi at Poona, others at Ahmadnagar fort. Rajendra Prasad was interned in Patna. The Congress Socialist Party whith its leaders like Ram Manohar Lohia, Achyuta Patwardhan played important role. Communist Party remained loyal to the British. The Muslims by & large remained indifferent.

INA

Captain Mohan Singh founded it in 1942. In 1943 he reached Singapore & gave a the cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. He was made the president of the Indian Independence League. The name of the brigades were Subhash, Gandhi, Nehru & Rani Lakshmibai. In Nov 1943, Japan handed over Andamans & Nicobar Islands to him. He named them Shaheed Island & Swaraj Island respectively. The army marched towards imphal after registering victory over Kohima. But later Japan accepted defeat & Subhas died in a plain crash after crossing Formosa Island.

C.R. Formula 1944

To resolve the constitutional impasse Rajagopalachari evolved a formula in March 1944. But it was rejected by Jinnah who would not settle without Pakistan.

Wavell Plan &

Shimla Conference

1945

The main provisions were akin to Cripps mission proposals. It essentially dealt with the Indian demand of self-rule & reconstitution of viceroy’s executive council giving a balanced representation to the major communities. Executive council was an interim arrangement in which all but the Viceory & the Commander in Chief were to be Indians & all portfolios except defence were to be held by Indian members. Conference broke down because of Jinnah’s insistence that Muslim league alone represented Indian Muslims & hence no non league muslim members could be nominated to viceroy’s council.

Cabinet Mission

1946

Pethick Lawrence (secretary of state for India), Stafford Cripps & A.B. Alexander. Jinnah stuck his demand for Pakistan. It proposed the formation of Union of India comprising both British India & princely states (only foreign, defence & communication). A constitutional assembly was to be formed consisting of nrepresentatives of Provincial assemblies & princely states, elected on communal basis in proportion to the population of each province. Envisaged interim govt & said that until the constitution is framed & the govt estd British forces will not withdraw. The Congress & Muslim league accepted it in June 1946.

Elections

Following cabinet mission elections were held. Congress secured 205 out of 214general seats & had support of 4 sikh members. The Muslim league got 73 out of 78 Muslim seats. Jinnah became greatly disturbed by the election results. He demanded separate constituent assembly & started instigating violent action. Later 16 August 1946 was fixed as direct action day to withdraw its acceptance of cabinet mission plan. Communal riots broke out in Bengal, United Province, Punjab, Sindh & NWFP. Interim government was formed with Jawahar Nehru as head & 14 members – 6 congress, 5 League, one each Christian, Sikh & Parsi. However Muslim league kept out of the Interim government.

INA Trails

Held at Red Fort in Delhi. Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai, Tejbahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of three senior INA officers, Shahnawaz khan, P.M. Sehgal & G.S. Gurudayal Dhillon led to their acquittal.

Mountbatten Plan

Mountbatten came to India as Viceroy. He put forth the plan of partition of India in 3 June 1947. Punjab & Bengal would be divided into two parts with Muslim & non Muslim majority. Baluchistan had the right to determine which side to join. The power would be transferred on 15 August 1947. Referendum were to be held in NWFP, Sylhet (to join Assam or East Bengal). Legislative assembly of Sindh was to decide whether to join India or not.

Indian Independece

Act 1947

The British Parliament passed the Indian Independence act on 18th July 1947. Partition on 15th August. The act provided separate governor generals for the two dominions. Abolition of the post of secretary of state for India. Pending the adoption of new constitution, the administration of the two dominions & the provinces would be carried on in accordance with the provisions of the government of India act 1935 though special powers of the Governor General & the Provincial governors would be ceased. Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan.

Unification Drive

On 5th July 1947, Vallabhbhai Patel appealed to the Indian provinces to handover. He followed up his appeal with a hurricane tour of 40 days in which he invited all the native princes to join the Indian union by 5th August. In Kashmir Hari Singh sent his PM Meharchand Mahajan with the signed papers for the merger. In Hyderabad the nawab wanted to continue his arbitary rule with the help of Rajakars. Finally after military action, Rajakars were expelled & the instrument of accession signed.

Pondicherry & Goa

The other French territories were Karaikal, Mahe,Yanam & Chandernagore. Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite. In 1954 all the French possession in India were formally handed over to India though the legal transfer took place in 1962. Operation ‘Vijay’ was carried out for the liberation of Goa when satyagraha failed in 1961. It became a state in 1987.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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About k.vero

Philosopher King
This entry was posted in GENERAL STUDIES-I, MODERN INDIAN HISTORY and tagged . Bookmark the permalink.

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